Physiotherapy can help with various conditions such as:

Soft Tissue Injuries

Soft tissue injuries involve muscles, ligaments, tendons and other soft tissues such as myofascial tissues, joint capsules and other connective tissues.

Common complaints of soft tissue injuries are tendinopathy (tendonitis)/epicondylitis, muscle strains, ligament sprains, bursitis, capsulitis, acute sports injuries.

Acute Pain

Acute pain can be defined as a quick onset of pain resulting from trauma, accident, sudden movement, or in some cases of unknown causes. It is essential to consult as early as possible to avoid further aggravation of the symptoms and to prevent compensations which may result in further damage.

Chronic Pain

Chronic pain is usually defined as pain that has been present for more than 3 months. This type of pain can result in a longer healing process because of tissue adaptation and compensations. However it is never too late to start therapy and to help improve your overall function.

Neck / Back Pain

Examples include acute, sub-acute or chronic back/neck pain, herniated discs, degenerative disc disease, spondylolisthesis, facet joint pain, vertebral dysfunction/arthritic changes (ie osteophytes), peripheral nerve damage/irritation (i.e. sciatic nerve) and other.

Headaches / Dizziness

There are many different causes of headaches and dizziness, however in certain cases these symptoms may arise from the cervical spine. For example, following an accident/whiplash injury, after a fall, a stiff neck, or even postural issues. In these cases, consulting a physiotherapist may be helpful in decreasing the intensity and frequency of your symptoms.


Degenerative changes are a normal process with aging. However, pain may arise from these arthritic changes; the joints stiffen and the range of movement can be limited. Although we cannot reverse these degenerative changes, we can help maintain or slow down the degeneration by regaining strength and mobility and improving the load on the joints as well as significantly improve function, decrease pain, and delay the need for surgical intervention in advanced cases. It has been said that exercise of the affected joint can have noticeable improvement in terms of long-term pain relief. Exercise often focuses on improving muscle strength, endurance, flexibility and in some cases, balance.

Articular Stiffness, Decrease Mobility / Flexibility

These changes may arise from many different situations, for instance a previous injury (i.e. from childhood, from previous sports injuries) that has never properly healed, from previous surgical interventions, and sometimes even from poor biomechanics. Even though pain may not be a factor, it is always suggested to improve the mobility and stiffness of the affected area as this may lead to issues later on and cause permanent damage.

Pre-Operative / Post-Operative (i.e. shoulders, knees, hips, spine, etc…)

Pre-operative physiotherapy is an important part of the rehabilitation process and includes optimization of mobility and strength prior to surgery. It has been shown to improve and sometimes accelerate the post-operative rehabilitation process.

Post-operative physiotherapy is essential to regain full function. In the initial stages, depending upon the surgery, the surgeon and the surgical protocol, decreasing pain and inflammation as well as improving the mobility is the primary goal. Once the mobility reaches its optimal and functional range, strengthening and flexibility exercises will be the next step. It is normal to have decrease strength post-surgery and the affected muscles need specific exercises to regain their strength.

Fracture (Post-Immobilisation)

After a fracture, the bone needs to be stabilized or immobilized to ensure proper healing (a typical immobilization period usually is 6 weeks depending on the injury). Once cleared by your doctor and you are given the go to start moving, it is important to consult a physiotherapist. After prolonged immobilization, there is limited mobility of the affected area, decreased muscle strength and visible muscle atrophy, decrease flexibility in the surrounding muscles as well as function. The physiotherapist will help to strengthen the bone and the muscle tissue surrounding the area, regain full range of motion and mobility as well as restore function.

Pregnant Women (pre-natal / post-partum) – (except perineal reeducation)

It is within the scope of practice of a physiotherapist to properly assess, treat and educate pregnant women in effective and safe exercises that have been shown to decrease back pain, pelvic pain and urinary incontinence throughout their pregnancy and post-partum. The physiotherapist will do an initial evaluation to assess the patient’s mobility, posture, strength, flexibility, balance as well as any musculoskeletal issues or pain that may arise. The physiotherapist will then be able to effectively determine a treatment plan and educate the patient regarding pre and post natal issues with an individualized approach. During a physiotherapy treatment, numerous treatment techniques are utilized that are safe for pregnant women such as mobilizations, soft tissue and massage techniques as well as postural education and stabilization exercises that will aid the patient (deep core stability exercises and flexibility exercises for example are commonly utilized exercises). In more complicated cases, it would be instructed to see a specialized physiotherapist in pelvic floor re-education.

Injury Prevention (i.e. muscle imbalances, poor biomechanics)

Injury prevention is essential; it may help avoid permanent structural damage, serious injuries and surgical interventions. Compensations may arise from underlying muscle weakness, flexibility issues, poor postures, lack of stability and poor biomechanics for example which may result in injury.

Postural issues

Posture is always a common issue, specifically for those in prolonged sitting positions. The physiotherapist can help you find a good posture and provide exercises to help improve sitting and standing postures which may be the source of your symptoms.

Growing pains

In the active young population, it is common that boys/girls may complain of growing pains (e.g. Osgood-Schlatter Disease). This is often a result of sudden growth spurs, decrease flexibility, lack of strength in certain muscles and poor biomechanics which can all have an impact on the young athlete’s joints causing them pain and discomfort during activity/sport or in activities of daily living.